Façade of Justice: Military Courts in the Occupied Territories

[This is an excerpt from a paper I submitted for a class on International Law and Human Rights, 2018]

Photo from Qalandiya Checkpoint, June 2017. No photography is allowed inside the Military courts.

Photo from Qalandiya Checkpoint, June 2017. No photography is allowed inside the Military courts.

Five of us were quickly ushered into one of the trailers. We slipped through the door, an Israeli soldier closed it behind us. As a group we edged our way into a row of plastic chairs. As everything settled and became quiet again, I was able to take in our surroundings. I was seated in the second row of plastic seats—reminiscent of chairs at a bus station as you wait en route to your final destination. A divider—similar to a metal fence—was placed between “us” and “them.” This divider reminded me of the twenty-foot tall concrete walls that were surrounding us outside of this temporary trailer. 

On the other side of the divider was an Israeli Judge, dressed in military garb, sitting on a raised dais in front of an Israeli flag that hung on the wall. The Judge looked hot, bored, and prodded the proceedings to continue. Close to the Judge were three desks: one had an old PC computer on it, a younger soldier tapping away at the keyboard. En face of the notetaking soldier was another desk with a lawyer in an Israeli uniform, presumably the prosecutor. To the side was an enclosure with three young men with their feet chained, waiting their turn. Soldiers in police uniforms stood nearby, watching over them. The final desk was perpendicular to the others, facing the judge head on and here stood three people: a Palestinian defendant, a lawyer, and another Israeli soldier. This soldier was shouting translations from Hebrew to Arabic for the defendant to follow what was happening. The Palestinian defendant was no older than sixteen. He was barely listening to the translations and had his back turned to the judge. He was in rapid fire conversation with the three people seated in front of me—his family. They had not seen him over three weeks, since his last hearing before the same court. 

Salwa Duaibis, co-founder of Military Court Watch, leaned over and translated that the family was discussing a cousin’s marriage and whether or not the defendant needed more clothing. She then whispered to me, “Welcome to the vegetable market.” At that moment, the electricity failed, and we were plunged into darkness and heat as the air conditioner shut down. The people in the room proceeded as though this was common, flipped a fuse, and continued with the case. The walls felt flimsy, as if the whole foundation was about to be blown away into the desert. 

The Military Court system of the Israeli occupation of Palestine provides an important case study of liminal jurisdictions and the applicability of international human rights law and legal statutes. The courts sit on the border between Israeli civil law and international law. It is the judicial force in the territories under Israeli military occupation. As a result, law can be worked to satisfy the interests of those in power. This paper seeks to analyze the ways that the Fourth Geneva Conventions (GCIV)can be used either to promote human rights, or to obscure violations of human rights. By discussing three important human rights—fair and impartial judgement as noted in the Universal Declaration of Human Rightsand GCIV, the rights of children as established by the Conventions on the Rights of the Child, and the equal application of laws as designated by the Convention for the Eradication of Racial Discrimination—it becomes apparent that the courts serve as a procedural façade for justice. Furthermore, this discussion highlights the indivisible nature of universal human rights which implies that rights are interconnected and therefore requires that they are applied consistently.

It will soon become clear that the Geneva Conventions are not upheld in totality in the military court system, the courts serve as a façade of justice and human rights.

Background on the Courts

The Military Courts of the Israeli Occupation were established after the 1967 victory of the IDF and the acquisition of the West Bank. The Judea Military Court at Ofer Prison is one of two official military courts and prisons that have been set up by the Israeli Army in the West Bank in order to prosecute cases from the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT); (there are another four military courts that exist inside Israel and are located next to the Israeli Information Agency’s (ISA) interrogation facilities). The court is located on the border between the West Bank and Israeli territory. One entrance opens from the West and Highway 443—a main commuter passage between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem that cuts through Palestinian villages and the West Bank—and is accessible by those with Israeli or international citizenship. The other entrance is approached from the East and the Palestinian village Beitunia. Palestinians from the West Bank can only enter from the East side if they have proper identification. 

This is the location of over a thousand cases per year as well as the Juvenile Court (B’tselem, 2017). The court has jurisdiction over all areas of the OPT that fall under Israeli civilian rule, namely Area B and Area C. However, they also receive cases that are marked “security offenses” regardless of which area of the territory they occur in. The courts are separate from the military courts that adjudicate in cases within the Israeli Army. Appeals to decisions made by the Military Courts are overseen by the Israeli Supreme Court. The military courts have a large impact on the daily life of Palestinians living under occupation.

The Fourth Geneva Conventions (GCIV): Human Rights Ideals versus Occupied Reality

The Military Court of Judea (and the northern court called Samaria) distributes a handout to all international guests that come to the court. The handout explicitly states that:

“The Military Courts in Judea and Samaria (hereinafter: “The Military Courts”) were established in accordance with international law, and have jurisdiction to hear ordinary criminal cases and cases involving security offenses…Article 66 of the 4thGeneva Convention refers to the role of the military courts.” 

The document continues to explain a list of legal cases that have established the role of the court. By situating the establishment of the courts firmly in traditions set up by the Fourth Geneva Conventions (GCIV), the court appeals to international legitimacy. While the courts emphasize Article 66—which stipulates that the local laws may be suspended and superseded by an occupying power—they overlook other integral rights that are included in the conventions. 

There are many infractions of these conventions (note that this list is not exhaustive): Article 65 and 71 that demand translation documents into the defendant’s own language (B’tselem 2017DCI, 2015); Article 66 that says the Location of the courts must be in the occupied territory (GCIV); Article 67 that requires proportionality of offense to punishment; and Article 76, Article 146, Article 147 that prohibit the moving of detainees to prisons not in the occupied territory. Military Court Watch has recorded these issues at length in the testimonies they have gathered.

Protection of Procedural Rights to a Fair and Impartial Trial 

Nowhere is this selection process of human rights more evident than in the actual proceedings in the Military Courts. By highlighting three main issues, we begin to unravel the façade of procedural justice that the courts afford to the occupation in attempt to legitimize the Israeli Military’s actions in the West Bank.

Issue of Remands in Custody: 99% Conviction Rate

According to Military Court Watch, there is a 99% conviction rate in the Military Courts. B’tselem explains this is a result of a system of remands in custody and prolonged detentions. The B’tselem report further explain the procedure: 

“Military judges are supposed to rely on the three conditions stipulated in Israeli law for approving remand in custody: prima facie evidence to prove guilt, grounds for arrest and lack of a relevant alternative to detention which could achieve the purpose of detention in a manner that is less injurious to the defendant” (B’tselem, 2017). 

While this emphasis on evidence appears promising, the actual application is less than thorough. B’tselem reports, 

“The bar for the evidence that the prosecution is required to present has been set so low that it, in fact, absolves the prosecution of the duty to present evidence to justify the detention; the requirement for “grounds for detention” has been replaced with a string of presumptions, and military courts have stipulated that, as a rule, Palestinian defendants cannot be released to an alternative to custody” (B'tselem, 2017).

Furthermore, if a judge sets a bail for a defendant (a rare case), the bail is often thousands of shekels and beyond the capacity of Palestinian families to pay. Detention may be extended for as long as one year. A different B’tselem report reminds us, “Individuals on remand are not serving a prison sentence. They have not been sentenced, not been found guilty. They are being held in custody when they should be presumed innocent” (B’tselem, 2015). According to B’tselem, at the end of August 2018, “465 Palestinians - including 1 woman and 3 minors - were held in administrative detention in Israel Prison Service (IPS) facilities” (B’tselem, 2018). That means 465 individuals awaiting a trial and presumed innocent until proven otherwise, are held in remand.

As a result of this system, most cases result in a plea bargain of guilty rather than face the prospect of a drawn-out court case (B’tselem, 2017). Therefore, the majority of cases that are being heard are plea bargains rather than an actual case where a defendant is allowed to prove their innocence. Preferring to avoid remaining in detention for a long time, it is often more “convenient” to have the charges downgraded and a to receive a decision of guilt. 

This has long term effects on Palestinians: often a guilty charge is used as grounds to deny permits. This has long-term impact on Palestinian social fabric, economic access, and health. A guilty charge has the capacity to derail a Palestinian’s life.

Minors Rights in Court: Convention on Rights of Children (CRC)

The State of Israel is also a signatory on the Conventions on the Rights of Child. Yet the treatment of minors in the Military Court System ignores many of the protections stipulated in this convention, namely Article 3, 37, and 40 in their entirety. According to a US State Department Report, 61% of Palestinian minors experience violence during arrest, interrogation, and detention (US State Department Report). This number is further corroborated by testimonies recorded by MCW.

MCW has found that children’s rights are constantly infringed in each step of the procedure from arrest (with approximately half of arrests taking place at night), to detentions (often occurs without alerting parents, guardians, or legal advisors), interrogation, lack of translation, and furthermore the convictions (MCW). Furthermore, a UNICEF report states that “the ill-treatment of children who come in contact with the military detention system appears to be widespread, systematic and institutionalized throughout the process” (UNICEF, 2013). This disregard for children’s rights is a further example of misapplication of international law.

Equal Application of the Law: ICCPR Article 4, CERD Article 5

Article 5 of CERD obligates that signatories must “guarantee the right to everyone, without distinction as to race, color, national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law,” notably in the enjoyment of certain civil, political, economic and social rights (Amnesty Intl, 2006). In combination with Article 4 of the ICCPR, this right must be upheld in all circumstances: war, peace, or occupation. 

Technically, the courts are responsible for cases involving Israeli settlers as well—i.e. any transgressions of the law that occur in Area C where settlements exist. However, in the 1980s the Attorney General ruled that Israeli citizens are to be tried in the Israeli civilian court system according to Israeli penal laws, even if they live in the OPT, and even if they commit a crime in the OPT (B’tselem, 2017Amnesty Intl, 2006). We thus see a direct violation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)—of which Israel is a signatory of CERD since January 3, 1979— as there are two different legal systems and the application of one set of laws versus another is determined by the individual’s ethnicity. Military Court Watch extensively documents the differences in treatment of Palestinian minors versus Israeli minors:

There are multiple cases in which the rights afforded to Palestinian minors violates international codes of conduct—such as the use of night interrogation, the lack of legal rights to have a parent present during questioning, and the limited right to consult with a lawyer. Furthermore, the punishments are drastically different: a Palestinian child may be sentenced up to twenty years in prison for an offense such as throwing a rock, while this charge does not exist for an Israeli child who is tried under civilian courts rather than military courts (MCW). The distinction between punishments, treatment, and access to fair and impartial hearings is clearly based on ethnic identities. (For further reflection on these divisions see the film The Law in These Parts (2011) that interviews previous Israeli Military Court Judges). 

These contradictions call into question the political, legal, and moral legitimacy of an occupation. By emphasizing Article 64 and Article 66 to establish the Military Courts, Israel is held under formal obligation to uphold the rest of the GCIV. 

 Human Rights and International Law: Indivisible?

Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian territories provides an interesting case study because it is both a military occupation of a foreign population, and a continued armed conflict. Furthermore, the lack of an official Palestinian state opens up legal issues in regard to sovereignty. This investigation prompts further inquiry into the relation between human rights and humanitarian law. It is clear that the Geneva Conventions are not upheld in totality in the military court system. Further human rights abuses occur that also ignore GCIV including, but not limited to, collective punishments, deportation outside of the region, destruction of villages, demolitions of houses, state seizure of private property, splitting families, violence, limitations on freedoms to associate and organize. Legal arguments may be made that refer back to Article 66 and remind critics that during a state of emergency, armed conflict, or military occupation, normal civil laws may be suspended. 

However, in 2004 the International Criminal Justice Court ruled that the ICCPR applies in the OPT. This opens up legal avenues to apply Article 4 of the ICCPR[1] and petition for redress in international courts of law. Therefore, we see a precedent that suggests that all human rights should apply in this region.

These issues highlight the tension of international covenants: is there a hierarchy of which laws reign supreme? How do we enforce and apply international law? What happens in the case of liminal spaces such as occupation? Do these laws apply extra-territorially?

I argue that human rights are indivisible, and therefore must be protected across categories, especially in cases of military occupation—where human rights abuses are more likely to occur as two parties in conflict are engaged. These contradictions call into question the political, legal, and moral legitimacy of an occupation. If legal, civil, and political rights are being abrogated in the name of security, then the legitimacy of the occupation should be called into question in both an international legal framework to protect human rights and in national context. Therefore, the fact that Israel is a signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the GCIV, the CRC, the CEDR, as well as other conventions and agreements means that the State of Israel should be held accountable to all rights they have signed on to—not only those that further their interests. By emphasizing Article 64 and Article 66 to establish the Military Courts, Israel is held under formal obligation to uphold the rest of the GCIV. As Roberts argues, if a state has incorporated human rights conventions in their framework of operations in an occupation, it is incumbent upon them to implement the rest (Roberts, 2006, 600); it is therefore incumbent upon international actors to ensure that international law is being applied consistently in order to protect human rights. 

[1] “In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race, color, sex, language, religion or social origin” (Amnesty International, 2006).

 

Sources:

Treaties that Israel is a signatory to (and apply to the population in the W. Bank):

The Hague Regulations

Fourth Geneva Conventions

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 

Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR), 

Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), 

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), 

Convention against Torture (CAT). 

Primary Sources:

Amnesty Intl (2006): Briefing To The Committee On The Elimination Of Racial Discrimination. January 2006. 

https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/76000/mde150022006en.pdf, 2018.

B’tselem (2015). “Presumed Guilty: Remand in Custody by Military Courts in the West Bank,” June 2015. https://www.btselem.org/publications/summaries/201506_presumed_guilty

B’tselem (2016). “Report: The Occupation's Fig Leaf: Israel’s Military Law Enforcement System as a Whitewash Mechanism,” May 2016. https://www.btselem.org/publications/summaries/201605_occupations_fig_leaf

B’tselem (2017). The Military Courts. https://www.btselem.org/military_courts. Accessed November 14, 2018

B’tselem (2018). “Statistics on Palestinians in the custody of the Israeli security forces,” October 31, 2018. Accessed November 14, 2018. https://www.btselem.org/statistics/detainees_and_prisoners

B’tselem (2018b). “Statistics on Administrative Detention,” October 31, 2018. Accessed November 14, 2018.

https://www.btselem.org/administrative_detention/statistics

Defense for Children International (DCI) (2015). “For Palestinian Children of East Jerusalem, the Exception is the Rule.” Jul 29, 2015 https://www.dci-palestine.org/for_palestinian_children_of_east_jerusalem_the_exception_is_the_rule

Ha’aretz. (2018). “Citing ‘Extrajudicial Executions,’ Amnesty International Raps Israel for Human Rights Abuses.” Ha’aretz, 22 Feb. 2018. Ha’aretz, https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-citing-extrajudicial-executions-amnesty-raps-israel-for-abuses-1.5845212.

Military Court (2015). Document from Ofer, http://www.militarycourtwatch.org/files/server/OFER%20DOC%20-%20JUL%202015.pdf.Accessed May 2019.

Military Court Watch (MCW) —watchdog organization reports 2002-2018: www.militarycourtwatch.org

Settlements Watch Shalom Acshav (2017). “Creeping Annexation: Changes in the Interpretation of the Laws Regarding Occupation.” December 2017. https://peacenow.org/WP/wp-content/uploads/Shalom-Achshav-Report-on-Creeping-Annexation-Changes-in-the-Interp-of-Laws-re-Occupation.pdf

Times of Israel (2016). “Israeli ‘Godfather’ Sentenced to 20 years in Prison.” February 25, 2016. 

https://www.timesofisrael.com/israeli-godfather-sentenced-to-20-years-in-prison/

UNICEF (2013). “Children in Israeli Military detention: Observations and Recommendations.” February 2013. https://www.unicef.org/oPt/UNICEF_oPt_Children_in_Israeli_Military_Detention_Observations_and_Recommendations_-_6_March_2013.pdf

Yesh Din (2016). “Report: From Occupation to Annexation,” February 2016.https://www.yesh-din.org/en/shhhhhh-were-annexing/

Yesh Din (2009) “Petition against holding Palestinian detainees inside Israel and holding their trials outside the West Bank,” March 25, 2009. https://www.yesh-din.org/en/petition-against-holding-palestinian-detainees-inside-israel-and-holding-their-trials-outside-the-west-bank-hcj-269009-yesh-din-volunteers-for-human-rights-v-the-commander-of-idf-forces-in-the-west/Accessed November 14, 2018

Secondary Sources:

Alexandrowicz, R., director. (2011). The Law in These Parts (Shilton Ha Chok). Documentary film.

Benveniśtî, E. (2004).The international law of occupation. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Dennis, M. (2005). “Application of Human Rights Treaties Extraterritorially in Times of Armed Conflict and Military Occupation,” The American Journal of International Law. Vol. 99, No. 1 (Jan, 2005). pp. 119-141

Dinstein, Y. (2009). The international law of belligerent occupation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hajjar, L. (2005) Courting conflict : the Israeli military court system in the West Bank and Gaza. London, England: University of California Press.

Roberts, A. (2006). “Transformative Military Occupation: Applying the Laws of Wars and Human Rights,” The American Journal of International Law. Vol. 100. (2006). Pp. 580-622.

Kretzmer, D. (2002) The occupation of justice: the Supreme Court of Israel and the Occupied 

Territories. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Laub, Karin, and Mohammed Daraghmeh. (2018). “For Palestinians, Israeli Permits a Complex Tool of Control.” AP, 30 Apr. 2018, https://www.apnews.com/7cfac1e5441747da841e51fdf3851460.

Weill, S. (2007) “The judicial arm of the occupation: the Israeli military courts in the occupied territories.”International Review of the Red Cross, 2007, Vol.89(866), pp.395-41.

 

 

 

Israel/Palestine: READING/DRINKING/EATING List

Time and time again friends ask me for recommendations when they are planning a trip to the [un]Holy Land.I find that I have some sense of social and political obligation that their trips are memorable, dissonant, and transformative.

So, here is my compiled list of recommendations: what to read, watch, listen to, eat, see, and drink before, during and after visiting Israel and Palestine.

Comment below if there is something I missed!


Map created by Julien Bousac   The map above shows what Palestine’s West Bank would look like if all non-Palestinian land suddenly turned into water.

Map created by Julien Bousac

The map above shows what Palestine’s West Bank would look like if all non-Palestinian land suddenly turned into water.

Hi friends!

If you have received this it is because you asked for somewhere to start when reading about Israel and Palestine and/or you are visiting!

I have one request: if you are visiting, leave on a question. If you are leaving and feel like you know the answer, then you missed something. Interrogate your conclusions, question your biases, and find a book to read that addresses that. If you are reading, read with an open mind. And most of all, find words by people who are living there. Let people speak for themselves.

Books:

Novels

Kingdom of Olives and Ash- edited by Ayelet Waldman and Michael

(^START HERE: a collection of essays. The best thing I’ve ever read. Award-winning authors came to I-P and visited with the sole intention of writing an essay afterwards trying to put into words what they saw.)

Sadness is a White Bird- Moriel Zecher-Rothman (novel)

Moghrabi’s Olives

Sharon and my Mother-in-law

Second Person Singular by Sayed Kashua

Academic-y books:

White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa

Militarization and Violence Against Women in Conflict Zones in the Middle East: A Palestinian Case-Study by Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian (2009)

The Iron Cage by Rashid Khalidi

Ethnocracy by Oren Yiftachel

Hollow Land by Eyal Weizmann (spatial theory! love this perspective. i find i think about it constantly when traveling through the land)

Gender and the Israeli Palestinian Conflict by Simona Sharoni (1995)

Anything by Arielle Azoulay: focuses on photography and collective witnessing

Shattered dreams: peace movements in Israel by Tamar Herrman (2009)

Classic Histories: very important revision of narratives

Year Zero of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: 1929 by Hillel Cohen

Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem 1947-1949 by Benny Morris

1948 by Benny Morris

Righteous Victims by Benny Morris

A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel by Gudrun Krämer

Khirbet Khizeh by S. Yizhar (a novel from the perspective of an Israeli soldier on the expulsions in 1948).

All that Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated in 1948 Edited by Walid Khalidi (An Encyclopedia of villages)

News articles

The One State Reality by David Remnick, November 17, 2014. The New Yorker [Profile on President Reuven Rivlin]

The Broken Silence by David Shulman, April 7, 2016. New York Review of Books [An analysis on the politics surrounding left-wing activism in Israel].

Is This Where the Third Intifada Will Start? By Ben Ehrenreich, March 15, 2013. The New York Times [The New York Times Magazine cover story on grassroots civil disobedience in Nabi Saleh].

“Tell me a story with a happy ending”: Correspondence between Etgar Keret and Sayed Kashua in The New Yorker during the Gaza war of 2014

Anything by Israeli journalists Anshel Pfeffer or Amira Haas

News sources:

+972 magazine

Ma’an News

Ha’aretz

ACRI

B’tselem

This Week in Palestine

Military Court Watch’s monthly newsletter

Art:

Occupied Pleasures- Tanya Habjouqa (photos from Gaza)

Nira Pereg: see her art work (mainly video) online. She captures sacred and profane of everyday life in Israel and the Occupied territories. (Watch Sabbath, Abraham, and the Right to Clean)

Palestine by Joe Sacco (graphic novel)

Visualizing Palestine: infographics https://visualizingpalestine.org/

Movies:

Elia Suleiman's The Time That Remains: Chronicle of a Present Absentee (2009): Wes Anderson-esque film. Beautiful, set in 1948, 1967, and 2000 Nazareth

In between (2016) - film about young Palestinian women living in Jaffa/Tel Aviv

Naila and the Uprising (2017)- a Just Vision documentary about Palestinian women’s leadership in nonviolent activism during the 1st Intifada.

Five Broken Cameras (2012) - a documentary about Palestinian grassroots civil disobedience in Bil'in

The Law in These Parts (2011) – a documentary about the origin and function of legal systems in the West Bank since 1967

The Gatekeepers (2013) - a documentary interviewing the past 6 Heads of the Shin-Bet (Israeli equivalent of the CIA)

Budrus (2010)- a documentary about the village of Budrus and the nonviolent activism that was used to protest the building of the wall through the village.

Naila and the Uprising (2018) the story of Palestinian women’s role in organizing nonviolent resistance

The Wanted 18 (2015) - a story about nonviolent resistance in Beit Sahour when the entire town hid 18 cows from the Israeli army during curfew

Omar (2014) - nominated for an Oscar

Oriented (2016) - documentary about the Palestinian LGBTQ scene in Jaffa

Arab Labor: popular Israeli sitcom TV show that was written by Sayed Kashua, a Palestinian-Israeli. Makes you laugh AND cringe at the same time.

Organizations I love:

Many have tours, check their websites or facebook for updated events. All have detailed reports of the situation on the ground

Breaking the Silence: tours of Hebron and South Hebron Hills

Ir Amim: East Jerusalem tours

Machsom Watch: checkpoint watchdogs (all women). Offer occasional tours

Btselem

Peace Now: occasional settlement tours

ACRI

IPCRI: conferences, seminars and more

Zochrot: they have an app you can download called iNakba. It geolocates you and shows you what historic Palestinian villages you are near as you travel through Israel.

Military Court Watch

Combatants for Peace

Holy Land Trust

Youth Against Settlements

Youth of Sumud

Taghreer

Adalah

Adameer

OCHA

PLACES THAT RESTORE YOUR SOUL VIA GOOD FOOD AND GOOD CONVERSATIONS AND GOOD PEOPLE

***= must visit

Food and Cafés

Jerusalem

Florentine Pizza

HaMarakia (soup and activism)

Imbala (co-op cafe)

***HaMifal (squatter artist warehouse turned resto/cafe/gallery/meeting place)

Mouseline (ice cream: get the Basil! Or the grapefruit mint.)

***Aricha Sabich (across from Mahene Yehuda)

Cafe Bezalel (classic art student scene)

Cafe Nadya (Classic Israeli breakfast)

Kudos (also good for breakfast)

Sushiya- on Trumpledor street, not the franchise. (tiny hole in the wall. Get the fish bowl. Fresh, delicious, revitalizing. Cheap!)

Azura: in the market. AMAZING Iraqi style food. Stews/soups/stuffed eggplant/hummus.

Jaafar: Knafeh and pastries in the Old City

Al Sawra street food: near al-Hakawati theater in East Jerusalem. Nice cafe vibes

Austrian Hospice (old city): Apple Strudel, a classic. And an orientalist oasis from the hustle and bustle of the Muslim quarter.

Treat yo’ self: Mahene Yehuda restaurant, and it’s sister restos including Talbiyeh (near Jerusalem theater). A proper chef restaurant/experience that is shaped by the fresh and seasonal available foods.

Tel Aviv

***Cafelix (Sgula square: this is the cafe I worked at. Micro-roastery. German-Israeli owners. Know whats up. Order a cortado, you will not be disappointed.)

Shaffa: in the flea market. great night scene, good food. Get the Sinniyiah.

***Abu Hasan hummus (jaffa)

Cafe Shapira

***Alla Rampa

Albi (cafe/food)

***Port Said

The Thai in Har Sinai (next to port said and the grand synagogue)

Street with Ethiopian food near the central bus station (Central Bus station is a must visit—the whole world is there).

Joz V’loz

***Albi: cafe/food

Casbah: florentine classic. Beware stoner waiters, may take a long time to get food.

Saluf and Sons! YEMENI DELICIOUS

***Levinsky 41: the craziest sodas (soda water and herbs and concentrated fruits. GO!)

Dalida: little known secret, if they are full and can’t seat you, they will give you a free cocktail coupon for another time. Pop by on a busy night, grab a coupon, come back with a reservation.

Romano

Hanoi

Cafe Pua: flea market. BEST BREAKFAST

Vitrine Lili: burgers! great burgers!

America: also, actually the best burgers

Burning Tacos

Taqueria: killer nachos.

Haifa

Masada Street. HaPina specifically

West Bank:

***** Jala Jungle (Previously Hosh Yasmin )(Beit Jala): a MUST. Block out several hours to be here. Aim for a time near sunset. Take the Bus #21 to Bethlehem and get off before you cross the wall in Beit Jala. Backtrack to Rico’s market, and walk down the hill on the street that has a flower shop on the corner. Ask if you need directions. You’ll find yourself on the hilltop of the al-Makhrour valley at a farm/resto.

**Singer Café- Beit Sahour

Tent- Beit Sahour

Drink

Jerusalem

**HaTipa (v v v local scene)

Sira

Imbala

HaMifal

***HaMazkeka (live music every. single. night.)

4:20

Horkanos

Pergamon

Tel Aviv (note: Tel Aviv’s scene changes quickly. This may be outdated. Anna Loulou recently closed, but it remains in my heart forever).

****Anna Loulou: collective owned bar between Palestinians and Israelis. LGBTQ scene. Dancing doesn’t start till late, plan to get there around 12. And be prepared for lots of cigarettes.) (https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/culture/.premium.MAGAZINE-a-bar-beyond-coexistence-1.5401348)

Port Said

Teder FM

Kuli Alma

Sputnik (?)

Uganda

Shpagat (LGBT, emphasis on lesbian)

The Container- jaffa port

Haifa

Anywhere on Masada St.

Also by the port, there are warehouses with great bars/good scene

West Bank

****Sno-bar: outdoors. Ramallah. AMAZING experience.

Hosh Yasmin

Garage

Radio

Jisr- Beit Sahour